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Summary of basic knowledge of sewage treatment

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【Summary】Wastewater quality;Common Basic Concepts

Summary of basic knowledge of sewage treatment

【Summary】Wastewater quality;Common Basic Concepts

  • Categroy:News
  • Author:
  • Origin:
  • Release Time:2022-01-28 14:07
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Information

Wastewater quality

SS: solid suspended substance, generally in mg/L. Generally refers to: filter paper filter water sample, the solid mass of the filtered interception after drying in 105℃ temperature after constant weight.

COD: chemical oxygen demand, generally in mg/L. The determination principle of COD is: with a strong oxidant (China's legal use of potassium dichromate), under acidic conditions, the oxidation of organic matter into CO2 and H2O consumption of oxygen, known as chemical oxygen demand. CODCr, usually COD. COD advantages: can accurately represent the content of organic matter in sewage, determination time only a few hours, and is not affected by water quality. The higher the cod is, the more serious the pollution of organic matter is.

BOD: Biochemical oxygen demand, generally mg /L. The amount of dissolved oxygen consumed by microbial decomposition of organic pollutants.

Nh3-n: Ammonia nitrogen, usually in mg/L. Ammonia nitrogen refers to nitrogen in water in the form of free ammonia (NH3) and ammonium ion (NH4+).

TP: total phosphorus, generally in mg/L. Phosphorus compounds in sewage can be divided into organic phosphorus and inorganic phosphorus.

Coliform number: the number of coliforms per liter of water sample, measured in units /L.

Total bacterial count: the total number of coliforms, pathogens, viruses and other bacteria, expressed as the total number of bacterial colonies per milliliter of water sample.

Wuhan Green Environmental Protection has a perfect service system and supporting professional environmental engineering team, with lofty environmental responsibility and obligations to provide long-term maintenance of free sewage treatment solutions, is a brand in the industrial wastewater management industry in Hubei Province. In the past 18 years, the company has designed and constructed hundreds of turnkey sewage treatment projects.

 

Common Basic Concepts

Anaerobic: In biological treatment of wastewater, the condition in which there is no dissolved oxygen and no nitrate nitrogen. Dissolved oxygen is below 0.2mg/L.

Anoxia (anoxia) an environmental condition characterized by insufficient or no dissolved oxygen but nitrate nitrogen in the biological treatment of wastewater. Dissolved oxygen is about 0.2-0.5mg/L.

Aerobic: In biological treatment of wastewater, the presence of dissolved oxygen or nitrate nitrogen. Dissolved oxygen is above 2.0mg/L.

Aeration: The process of forcing only oxygen from air into a liquid in order to obtain sufficient dissolved oxygen. In addition, aeration has to prevent suspension from sinking, strengthen the purpose of organic matter in the pool and microbial and dissolved oxygen contact, so as to ensure that microorganisms in the pool under the condition of sufficient dissolved oxygen, the oxidation of organic matter in sewage decomposition.

Activated sludge: Sludge - like flocculation formed by various organisms such as bacteria, fungi, protozoa and metazoa and inorganic substances such as metal hydroxide. It has good adsorption, flocculation, biological oxidation and biosynthesis properties.

Activated sludge process: a wastewater treatment method for removing organic pollutants in sewage by means of coagulation, adsorption, oxidation, decomposition and precipitation of activated sludge in sewage.

Biofilm process: a wastewater treatment process in which the wastewater is exposed to a biofilm growing on the surface of a fixed support, and the biofilm is used to degrade or transform organic pollutants in the wastewater.

Air float: air float is in the water through or produce a large number of fine bubbles, so that it adheres to the suspended particles, resulting in a state of density less than water, using the buoyancy principle to make it float on the water, so as to obtain solid-liquid separation method. The ways of producing microbubbles include aeration and gas dissolution.

Coagulation: the purpose of coagulation is to add some agents to the water (coagulant or coagulant aid), so that the colloidal particles in the water can be difficult to precipitate each other, grow up to the extent of natural precipitation, this method is called coagulation precipitation.

Filtration: in the process of water treatment, filtration generally refers to the process of intercepting suspended substances in water with granular packing layer such as quartz sand, so that the water can be clarified. The main role of filtration is to remove suspended or colloidal substances in water, especially can effectively remove the precipitation technology can not remove the smile particles and bacteria, COD and BOD also have a certain degree of removal effect.

Sedimentation: The process of removing suspended solids from water by gravity sedimentation using the density difference between suspended solids and water.

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Difference between calcium hypochlorite and bleaching powder
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1. What is Calcium hypochlorite? The main components of bleaching powder commonly used in aquaculture are calcium chloride and calcium hypochlorite. Among them: the effective component of bleaching powder that plays a role in disinfection is calcium hypochlorite [ca (CLO) 2], and calcium chloride is a chemical substance that will obviously absorb moisture. Due to the existence of calcium chloride in bleaching powder, the available chlorine in bleaching powder is easily affected and reduced. Because calcium hypochlorite is the essence of bleaching powder, calcium hypochlorite is also called bleaching powder essence in the market. Compared with bleaching powder, it is pure calcium hypochlorite essence and does not contain calcium chloride and other hygroscopic substances. The chlorine content is about 68%, which is significantly higher than the effective chlorine content of the newly produced non damped bleaching powder. Generally, the disinfection dose is only 0.1~0.2ppm. In aquaculture and other industries that need disinfection and oxidation, disinfectants that dissolve in water and produce hypochlorite are generally referred to as chlorine containing disinfectants. The germicidal efficacy of chlorine containing disinfectants is closely related to the amount of effective chlorine they contain. The higher the effective chlorine, the stronger the disinfection and oxidation capacity. 2. Comparison of advantages and disadvantages between bleaching powder and calcium hypochlorite Advantages of bleach: It is cheap and has obvious effect on general pathogenic microorganisms. Disadvantages of bleach: Due to the strong water absorption of calcium chloride contained in bleaching powder, it is easy to decompose when exposed to light, water, heat, etc., and is not resistant to storage. Especially in humid areas, the available chlorine of bleaching powder will decrease exponentially in about a month. Even lead to the loss of proper disinfection effect. The principle of bleaching powder deterioration: Calcium chloride in bleaching powder absorbs water and makes calcium hypochlorite in bleaching powder generate hypochlorite.   3. Hypochlorous acid will decompose into hydrogen chloride and oxygen under light conditions, thus losing effective chlorine. Advantages of calcium hypochlorite: contains very little hygroscopic calcium chloride, so calcium hypochlorite is relatively stable and resistant to storage and transportation (which is very important to ensure the disinfection effect). Compared with bleaching powder, the available chlorine of calcium hypochlorite is stable and high, which has obvious effect on general pathogenic microorganisms. The amount of use in disinfection is small, which reduces the amount of labor. Disadvantages of calcium hypochlorite: Since calcium hypochlorite contains a large amount of effective chlorine, protective measures need to be taken during operation.
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1. What is Calcium hypochlorite? The main components of bleaching powder commonly used in aquaculture are calcium chloride and calcium hypochlorite. Among them: the effective component of bleaching powder that plays a role in disinfection is calcium hypochlorite [ca (CLO) 2], and calcium chloride is a chemical substance that will obviously absorb moisture. Due to the existence of calcium chloride in bleaching powder, the available chlorine in bleaching powder is easily affected and reduced. Because calcium hypochlorite is the essence of bleaching powder, calcium hypochlorite is also called bleaching powder essence in the market. Compared with bleaching powder, it is pure calcium hypochlorite essence and does not contain calcium chloride and other hygroscopic substances. The chlorine content is about 68%, which is significantly higher than the effective chlorine content of the newly produced non damped bleaching powder. Generally, the disinfection dose is only 0.1~0.2ppm. In aquaculture and other industries that need disinfection and oxidation, disinfectants that dissolve in water and produce hypochlorite are generally referred to as chlorine containing disinfectants. The germicidal efficacy of chlorine containing disinfectants is closely related to the amount of effective chlorine they contain. The higher the effective chlorine, the stronger the disinfection and oxidation capacity. 2. Comparison of advantages and disadvantages between bleaching powder and calcium hypochlorite Advantages of bleach: It is cheap and has obvious effect on general pathogenic microorganisms. Disadvantages of bleach: Due to the strong water absorption of calcium chloride contained in bleaching powder, it is easy to decompose when exposed to light, water, heat, etc., and is not resistant to storage. Especially in humid areas, the available chlorine of bleaching powder will decrease exponentially in about a month. Even lead to the loss of proper disinfection effect. The principle of bleaching powder deterioration: Calcium chloride in bleaching powder absorbs water and makes calcium hypochlorite in bleaching powder generate hypochlorite.   3. Hypochlorous acid will decompose into hydrogen chloride and oxygen under light conditions, thus losing effective chlorine. Advantages of calcium hypochlorite: contains very little hygroscopic calcium chloride, so calcium hypochlorite is relatively stable and resistant to storage and transportation (which is very important to ensure the disinfection effect). Compared with bleaching powder, the available chlorine of calcium hypochlorite is stable and high, which has obvious effect on general pathogenic microorganisms. The amount of use in disinfection is small, which reduces the amount of labor. Disadvantages of calcium hypochlorite: Since calcium hypochlorite contains a large amount of effective chlorine, protective measures need to be taken during operation.
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Market Overview It is estimated to reach USD 1,808.11 million by 2031, growing at a CAGR of 11.13% over the forecast period (2023–2031). Market growth is anticipated to be driven by the rising demand for calcium hypochlorite in the coming years, driven by the rising usage of hygiene products to prevent water-borne diseases like cholera and typhoid.   Calcium hypochlorite is an inorganic compound utilized as a component in chlorine powder and bleaching powder, among other applications. It undergoes gradual decomposition in humid air and emits a potent chlorine odor. Calcium hypochlorite overuse can be harmful and irritate the skin. It has extensive applications in the disinfection of swimming pools, water purification, and bleaching textiles and paper. Calcium hypochlorite must be stored away from organic materials such as cloth, wood, and petroleum products since it can cause an explosion or fire when reacted.   Calcium hypochlorite is mainly used to disinfect drinking water and public swimming pools. The surging usage of calcium hypochlorite in spas, hot tub water, and swimming pools is anticipated to positively impact the growth of the calcium hypochlorite market worldwide. It is used as an oxidizer for decontaminating mustard gas and as a pesticide for insects, especially caterpillars. Calcium hypochlorite is also used to kill bacteria in different food products. It is utilized to sanitize the surfaces of different equipment and utensils. In households, calcium hypochlorite is commonly used in algaecides, bathroom cleaners, herbicides, household disinfectant sprays, laundry detergents, etc.
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Market Overview It is estimated to reach USD 1,808.11 million by 2031, growing at a CAGR of 11.13% over the forecast period (2023–2031). Market growth is anticipated to be driven by the rising demand for calcium hypochlorite in the coming years, driven by the rising usage of hygiene products to prevent water-borne diseases like cholera and typhoid.   Calcium hypochlorite is an inorganic compound utilized as a component in chlorine powder and bleaching powder, among other applications. It undergoes gradual decomposition in humid air and emits a potent chlorine odor. Calcium hypochlorite overuse can be harmful and irritate the skin. It has extensive applications in the disinfection of swimming pools, water purification, and bleaching textiles and paper. Calcium hypochlorite must be stored away from organic materials such as cloth, wood, and petroleum products since it can cause an explosion or fire when reacted.   Calcium hypochlorite is mainly used to disinfect drinking water and public swimming pools. The surging usage of calcium hypochlorite in spas, hot tub water, and swimming pools is anticipated to positively impact the growth of the calcium hypochlorite market worldwide. It is used as an oxidizer for decontaminating mustard gas and as a pesticide for insects, especially caterpillars. Calcium hypochlorite is also used to kill bacteria in different food products. It is utilized to sanitize the surfaces of different equipment and utensils. In households, calcium hypochlorite is commonly used in algaecides, bathroom cleaners, herbicides, household disinfectant sprays, laundry detergents, etc.
Pros of Calcium Hypochlorite
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Time of issue : 2024-04-09 10:13:04
Calcium hypochlorite is a white, concentrated chemical sold as a powder, as crystals and in tablets. All are used to disinfect and sanitize drinking water and swimming pool water. When combined with water, calcium hypochlorite releases oxygen and a high concentration of chlorine molecules. Chlorine is an effective way to kill bacterial and fungal populations in water sources, and, compared with other sources of chlorine for water purification, it is easier and safer to use. However, there are some downsides to be aware of in calcium hypochlorite use. Cost Effectiveness One of the primary benefits of calcium hypochlorite is that a relatively small amount of the chemical can successfully disinfect large amounts of water, making it one of the most cost-effective choices in water sanitation. According to Survivaltopics.com, a site devoted to providing readers information about surviving outdoors and during emergency situations, a 1-lb. bag of calcium hypochlorite in granular form can treat up to 10,000 gallons of water. Ease of Use Although using chlorine as a water disinfectant is generally simple and efficient, calcium hypochlorite is preferred over the other common forms of chlorine water treatment–chlorine gas and liquid bleach (also known as sodium hypochlorite)–because it is more stable, requires less equipment to use and is easier to transport. Chlorine gas is highly effective but must be handled with extreme care because of its hazardous, corrosive nature. Liquid bleach is most useful when treating only small amounts of water. By contrast, calcium hypochlorite is safer to handle than chlorine gas and can be used on much larger volumes of water than bleach. Length of Storage Another benefit of calcium hypochlorite is that it can be stored for long periods of time without any of its disinfectant ability diminishing. Other forms of chlorine, such as liquid bleach, degrade in a matter of months. In order to be certain that your bleach has the optimal level of chlorine, a representative of Clorox says, you should change your supply of bleach every three months. Length of Storage Another benefit of calcium hypochlorite is that it can be stored for long periods of time without any of its disinfectant ability diminishing. Other forms of chlorine, such as liquid bleach, degrade in a matter of months. In order to be certain that your bleach has the optimal level of chlorine, a representative of Clorox says, you should change your supply of bleach every three months.  
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Calcium hypochlorite is a white, concentrated chemical sold as a powder, as crystals and in tablets. All are used to disinfect and sanitize drinking water and swimming pool water. When combined with water, calcium hypochlorite releases oxygen and a high concentration of chlorine molecules. Chlorine is an effective way to kill bacterial and fungal populations in water sources, and, compared with other sources of chlorine for water purification, it is easier and safer to use. However, there are some downsides to be aware of in calcium hypochlorite use. Cost Effectiveness One of the primary benefits of calcium hypochlorite is that a relatively small amount of the chemical can successfully disinfect large amounts of water, making it one of the most cost-effective choices in water sanitation. According to Survivaltopics.com, a site devoted to providing readers information about surviving outdoors and during emergency situations, a 1-lb. bag of calcium hypochlorite in granular form can treat up to 10,000 gallons of water. Ease of Use Although using chlorine as a water disinfectant is generally simple and efficient, calcium hypochlorite is preferred over the other common forms of chlorine water treatment–chlorine gas and liquid bleach (also known as sodium hypochlorite)–because it is more stable, requires less equipment to use and is easier to transport. Chlorine gas is highly effective but must be handled with extreme care because of its hazardous, corrosive nature. Liquid bleach is most useful when treating only small amounts of water. By contrast, calcium hypochlorite is safer to handle than chlorine gas and can be used on much larger volumes of water than bleach. Length of Storage Another benefit of calcium hypochlorite is that it can be stored for long periods of time without any of its disinfectant ability diminishing. Other forms of chlorine, such as liquid bleach, degrade in a matter of months. In order to be certain that your bleach has the optimal level of chlorine, a representative of Clorox says, you should change your supply of bleach every three months. Length of Storage Another benefit of calcium hypochlorite is that it can be stored for long periods of time without any of its disinfectant ability diminishing. Other forms of chlorine, such as liquid bleach, degrade in a matter of months. In order to be certain that your bleach has the optimal level of chlorine, a representative of Clorox says, you should change your supply of bleach every three months.  
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