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How to treat sewage with high cod content

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  • Release Time:2023-06-09 14:40
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【Summary】The wastewater with high COD content includes food COD wastewater, paper making COD wastewater, oil refinery COD wastewater, landfill leachate COD wastewater, emulsion COD wastewater, chemical industry COD wastewater, pharmaceutical COD wastewater...

How to treat sewage with high cod content

【Summary】The wastewater with high COD content includes food COD wastewater, paper making COD wastewater, oil refinery COD wastewater, landfill leachate COD wastewater, emulsion COD wastewater, chemical industry COD wastewater, pharmaceutical COD wastewater...

  • Categroy:News
  • Author:
  • Origin:
  • Release Time:2023-06-09 14:40
  • Views:
Information

 

The wastewater with high COD content includes food COD wastewater, paper making COD wastewater, oil refinery COD wastewater, landfill leachate COD wastewater, emulsion COD wastewater, chemical industry COD wastewater, pharmaceutical COD wastewater, charcoal COD wastewater, coking COD wastewater, coal tar COD wastewater and so on.

There are many kinds of sewage treatment methods with high COD content, first of all, we should do a good job of sewage pretreatment, through the physical grid or separator, remove the large particles of organic COD suspended matter, and then use chemical flocculation or oxidation method to remove most of the organic COD, and finally, through biological treatment method to make the sewage COD standard discharge.

In addition, for particularly high COD sewage, COD of hundreds of thousands of sewage, this sewage can be thoroughly treated by evaporation or incineration.

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Controlling Residual Chlorine With Calcium Hypochlorite Versus Trichloroisocyanuric Acid
Controlling Residual Chlorine With Calcium Hypochlorite Versus Trichloroisocyanuric Acid
Reducing cyanuric acid levels from trichlor can be a bigger battle than reducing calcium hardness from cal hypo.   When it comes to pool sanitation, there are a lot of options. But, in this situation, it’s entire possible to have too much of a good thing. Two common options for pool sanitation are calcium hypochlorite (known as cal hypo) or with trichloroisocyanuric acid (known as trichlor). Both products add chlorine to the swimming pool, killing germs and sanitizing the water for swimming. However, both also introduce extra and different chemicals as well, some of which have their drawbacks when it comes to safety and performance. Pool operators who choose them have their reasons; cost is often a large factor. However, though some chemicals may seem more cost-effective up front, maintaining the sanitizer will also add up in hidden costs. Calcium hypochlorite increases pH, alkalinity and calcium hardness levels. Calcium hardness is important in water in that it protects surfaces, including plaster and metal, from corroding. Trichlor, on the other hand, reduces pH and alkalinity, but increases cyanuric acid (CYA). CYA helps protect chlorine from being decomposed in UV light. It is not recommended, however, for use indoors. Both chemicals, however, have their capacity limits. Too much calcium from cal hypo can turn the water cloudy and cause scaling to occur. And too much CYA from trichlor can render the chlorine less effective in the water, making its sanitizing process much slower. “Because CYA slows the disinfection rate of chlorine, there is a greater risk of illness from waterborne pathogens such as E. coli, giardia and cryptosporidium,"“With just 20 ppm CYA, the risk of illness from crypto is over 10 times higher and the risk of giardia infection is 29 times higher compared to just 2 pm free chlorine alone without stabilization.” When both chemical byproducts reach those limits, the only way to reduce them is by removing water – usually by backwashing the filter or physically removing water from the pool. Evaporation, however, is not an effective way to remove either calcium hardness or CYA, because they do not evaporate. This is where the unexpected costs begin – and is particularly difficult in drought-ridden areas, where emptying and refilling a pool is not an option. Differences between cal hypo and trichlor The real difference between the two chlorinators comes down to water levels and additional chemicals needed to maintain their byproducts in the correct levels. Sanitizing with trichlor requires almost six times the amount of water to retain the CYA within range than it does to keep calcium hardness in check with cal hypo. Similarly, to maintain pH levels, other chemicals are needed. One option for neutralizing increased pH caused by cal hypo is with muriatic acid, and sodium carbonate to neutralize decreased pH caused by trichlor. However, it requires far less muriatic acid—almost 10 times less—to neutralize a pound of cal hypo compared to sodium carbonate for a pound of trichlor. Though at a glance, sodium carbonate and trichlor are both far less expensive than cal hypo and muriatic acid, the amount of sodium carbonate and trichlor required to maintain the pool pH greatly exceeds that of cal hypo and muriatic acid.
See more information
Reducing cyanuric acid levels from trichlor can be a bigger battle than reducing calcium hardness from cal hypo.   When it comes to pool sanitation, there are a lot of options. But, in this situation, it’s entire possible to have too much of a good thing. Two common options for pool sanitation are calcium hypochlorite (known as cal hypo) or with trichloroisocyanuric acid (known as trichlor). Both products add chlorine to the swimming pool, killing germs and sanitizing the water for swimming. However, both also introduce extra and different chemicals as well, some of which have their drawbacks when it comes to safety and performance. Pool operators who choose them have their reasons; cost is often a large factor. However, though some chemicals may seem more cost-effective up front, maintaining the sanitizer will also add up in hidden costs. Calcium hypochlorite increases pH, alkalinity and calcium hardness levels. Calcium hardness is important in water in that it protects surfaces, including plaster and metal, from corroding. Trichlor, on the other hand, reduces pH and alkalinity, but increases cyanuric acid (CYA). CYA helps protect chlorine from being decomposed in UV light. It is not recommended, however, for use indoors. Both chemicals, however, have their capacity limits. Too much calcium from cal hypo can turn the water cloudy and cause scaling to occur. And too much CYA from trichlor can render the chlorine less effective in the water, making its sanitizing process much slower. “Because CYA slows the disinfection rate of chlorine, there is a greater risk of illness from waterborne pathogens such as E. coli, giardia and cryptosporidium,"“With just 20 ppm CYA, the risk of illness from crypto is over 10 times higher and the risk of giardia infection is 29 times higher compared to just 2 pm free chlorine alone without stabilization.” When both chemical byproducts reach those limits, the only way to reduce them is by removing water – usually by backwashing the filter or physically removing water from the pool. Evaporation, however, is not an effective way to remove either calcium hardness or CYA, because they do not evaporate. This is where the unexpected costs begin – and is particularly difficult in drought-ridden areas, where emptying and refilling a pool is not an option. Differences between cal hypo and trichlor The real difference between the two chlorinators comes down to water levels and additional chemicals needed to maintain their byproducts in the correct levels. Sanitizing with trichlor requires almost six times the amount of water to retain the CYA within range than it does to keep calcium hardness in check with cal hypo. Similarly, to maintain pH levels, other chemicals are needed. One option for neutralizing increased pH caused by cal hypo is with muriatic acid, and sodium carbonate to neutralize decreased pH caused by trichlor. However, it requires far less muriatic acid—almost 10 times less—to neutralize a pound of cal hypo compared to sodium carbonate for a pound of trichlor. Though at a glance, sodium carbonate and trichlor are both far less expensive than cal hypo and muriatic acid, the amount of sodium carbonate and trichlor required to maintain the pool pH greatly exceeds that of cal hypo and muriatic acid.
Differences Between Calcium Hypochlorite and Sodium Hypochlorite
Differences Between Calcium Hypochlorite and Sodium Hypochlorite
Hypochlorites are widely used for disinfection, sanitization, and bleaching purposes in various industries. Among them, calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite are the most commonly used. Understanding the differences between these two compounds is crucial for selecting the appropriate chemical for specific applications. This article explores their properties, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Chemical Composition and Physical Form Calcium Hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)₂): Chemical Composition: Calcium hypochlorite consists of calcium, chlorine, and oxygen. Physical Form: It is commonly available in granular or tablet form, with a white or grayish-white appearance. Concentration: Typically, calcium hypochlorite contains 65-70% available chlorine. Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl): Chemical Composition: Sodium hypochlorite consists of sodium, chlorine, and oxygen. Physical Form: It is usually found in liquid form, appearing as a clear, slightly yellow solution. Concentration: Commercial sodium hypochlorite solutions typically contain 10-15% available chlorine. Solubility and Stability Calcium Hypochlorite: Solubility: Calcium hypochlorite is less soluble in water compared to sodium hypochlorite. It requires thorough mixing to dissolve completely. Stability: It is relatively stable when stored in a dry and cool environment but can degrade over time when exposed to heat, moisture, or air. Sodium Hypochlorite: Solubility: Sodium hypochlorite is highly soluble in water, making it easy to use in various aqueous solutions. Stability: It is less stable than calcium hypochlorite and can degrade more rapidly, especially when exposed to light, heat, or contaminants. Sodium hypochlorite solutions should be stored in a cool, dark place to maintain their effectiveness. Applications Calcium Hypochlorite: Water Treatment: Commonly used for disinfecting drinking water and swimming pools due to its high chlorine content and ease of handling in solid form. Sanitization: Used in food processing plants, dairies, and other industries for sanitizing equipment and surfaces. Bleaching: Employed in the textile and paper industries for bleaching fabrics and paper products. Sodium Hypochlorite: Water Treatment: Widely used for disinfecting municipal drinking water and wastewater due to its easy solubility and application in liquid form. Household Cleaning: Found in household bleach and various cleaning products for sanitizing surfaces, removing stains, and disinfecting. Industrial Cleaning: Used in industries for cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, equipment, and containers. Advantages and Disadvantages Calcium Hypochlorite: Advantages: Higher available chlorine content provides strong disinfection power. Solid form offers longer shelf life and easier storage. Less corrosive compared to liquid hypochlorites. Disadvantages: Requires careful handling and storage to prevent degradation. Less soluble, requiring thorough mixing in water. Potentially hazardous if not handled properly. Sodium Hypochlorite: Advantages: Highly soluble in water, making it easy to use in various solutions. Convenient for large-scale disinfection and cleaning due to its liquid form. Commonly available and easy to use in household and industrial applications. Disadvantages: Lower chlorine content compared to calcium hypochlorite. Less stable, with a shorter shelf life and potential for rapid degradation. More corrosive, requiring careful handling and storage. Environmental Impact Both calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite can have significant environmental impacts if not used and disposed of properly. They can contribute to chlorine residuals in water bodies, which can be harmful to aquatic life. Proper handling, storage, and disposal procedures are essential to minimize their environmental footprint. Conclusion Calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite are both effective disinfectants with their own sets of advantages and disadvantages. Calcium hypochlorite's higher chlorine content and solid form make it suitable for certain applications, while sodium hypochlorite's solubility and ease of use in liquid form make it ideal for others. Understanding the differences between these two chemicals helps in selecting the appropriate hypochlorite for specific needs, ensuring effective disinfection while considering handling, stability, and environmental impact.
See more information
Hypochlorites are widely used for disinfection, sanitization, and bleaching purposes in various industries. Among them, calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite are the most commonly used. Understanding the differences between these two compounds is crucial for selecting the appropriate chemical for specific applications. This article explores their properties, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Chemical Composition and Physical Form Calcium Hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)₂): Chemical Composition: Calcium hypochlorite consists of calcium, chlorine, and oxygen. Physical Form: It is commonly available in granular or tablet form, with a white or grayish-white appearance. Concentration: Typically, calcium hypochlorite contains 65-70% available chlorine. Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl): Chemical Composition: Sodium hypochlorite consists of sodium, chlorine, and oxygen. Physical Form: It is usually found in liquid form, appearing as a clear, slightly yellow solution. Concentration: Commercial sodium hypochlorite solutions typically contain 10-15% available chlorine. Solubility and Stability Calcium Hypochlorite: Solubility: Calcium hypochlorite is less soluble in water compared to sodium hypochlorite. It requires thorough mixing to dissolve completely. Stability: It is relatively stable when stored in a dry and cool environment but can degrade over time when exposed to heat, moisture, or air. Sodium Hypochlorite: Solubility: Sodium hypochlorite is highly soluble in water, making it easy to use in various aqueous solutions. Stability: It is less stable than calcium hypochlorite and can degrade more rapidly, especially when exposed to light, heat, or contaminants. Sodium hypochlorite solutions should be stored in a cool, dark place to maintain their effectiveness. Applications Calcium Hypochlorite: Water Treatment: Commonly used for disinfecting drinking water and swimming pools due to its high chlorine content and ease of handling in solid form. Sanitization: Used in food processing plants, dairies, and other industries for sanitizing equipment and surfaces. Bleaching: Employed in the textile and paper industries for bleaching fabrics and paper products. Sodium Hypochlorite: Water Treatment: Widely used for disinfecting municipal drinking water and wastewater due to its easy solubility and application in liquid form. Household Cleaning: Found in household bleach and various cleaning products for sanitizing surfaces, removing stains, and disinfecting. Industrial Cleaning: Used in industries for cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, equipment, and containers. Advantages and Disadvantages Calcium Hypochlorite: Advantages: Higher available chlorine content provides strong disinfection power. Solid form offers longer shelf life and easier storage. Less corrosive compared to liquid hypochlorites. Disadvantages: Requires careful handling and storage to prevent degradation. Less soluble, requiring thorough mixing in water. Potentially hazardous if not handled properly. Sodium Hypochlorite: Advantages: Highly soluble in water, making it easy to use in various solutions. Convenient for large-scale disinfection and cleaning due to its liquid form. Commonly available and easy to use in household and industrial applications. Disadvantages: Lower chlorine content compared to calcium hypochlorite. Less stable, with a shorter shelf life and potential for rapid degradation. More corrosive, requiring careful handling and storage. Environmental Impact Both calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite can have significant environmental impacts if not used and disposed of properly. They can contribute to chlorine residuals in water bodies, which can be harmful to aquatic life. Proper handling, storage, and disposal procedures are essential to minimize their environmental footprint. Conclusion Calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite are both effective disinfectants with their own sets of advantages and disadvantages. Calcium hypochlorite's higher chlorine content and solid form make it suitable for certain applications, while sodium hypochlorite's solubility and ease of use in liquid form make it ideal for others. Understanding the differences between these two chemicals helps in selecting the appropriate hypochlorite for specific needs, ensuring effective disinfection while considering handling, stability, and environmental impact.
Why Calcium Hypochlorite is a Preferred Method of Swimming Pool Sanitation
Why Calcium Hypochlorite is a Preferred Method of Swimming Pool Sanitation
Calcium hypochlorite, better known by its nickname of cal hypo, is one type of product commonly used to treat swimming pool water. It comes in various forms, such as granular or in tablets that look like hockey pucks. Because of its solid, concentrated form and ability to kill any number of pathogens while keeping water clean and sparkling, it is considered the most ideal product to choose when it comes to sanitizing swimming pools. Cal hypo’s solid form makes it is easy to transport and to store. It can be purchased in small bags that are easy for any homeowner to handle and use. It is inexpensive, fast-acting, and very strong. If it’s added correctly, it will not damage the pool or equipment. It is also used to shock pools, which means giving the pool a high dose of chlorine to quickly eliminate any build-up of combined chlorine and extra germs that may have manifested from a high bather load or rain storm. Cal hypo does not contain cyanuric acid, which is a chlorine stabilizer, so cal hypo’s ability to kill germs quickly is not affected by overstabilization that can slow it down. Too much cyanuric acid can also lead to algae blooms, because the chlorine can’t kill the algae as fast. On the flip side, cal hypo’s lack of cyanuric acid also means chlorine is burned off quickly in the sun, which cyanuric acid’s job is to protect from happening. However, cyanuric acid may be added separately to the pool to keep this from occurring. There are other methods of treating a pool, such as trichlor-s-triazinetrione, or trichlor for short. Trichlor is another popular product and is very similar to cal hypo in that it comes in tablets, is inexpensive, easy to transport, and has a high amount of chlorine. However, unlike cal hypo, it does have cyanuric acid to protect the chlorine from being worn away by the sun. Each tablet typically has about 50% cyanuric acid. Cyanuric acid doesn’t dissipate over time like chlorine, so after a while, your pool can end up with a high cyanuric acid level, which can only be lowered by partial draining and refilling. Trichlor also has a low pH, which can cause pipes to corrode. “Typically a lot of pool builders will tell you don’t ever put a trichlor tab in your skimmer because you can have damage to your downstream equipment.” “Cal hypo has a high pH, so even though you have a high concentration of chlorine, it doesn't corrode your heater or any of your other equipment if you put it in either a skimmer or feeder.” Sodium hypochlorite, also known as liquid bleach is another option, but it is only sold as a liquid which makes transporting difficult due to the weight. It is also extremely corrosive, so it must be handled with much more care than its solid counterparts. In addition, liquid bleach loses much of its strength in storage and at high temperatures. Cal hypo contributes calcium to the pool which can create scale in the presence of high pH and high carbonate concentrations.Scale can be removed with an acid wash or anti-scale agent. Unlike corrosion caused by trichlor, scale can be removed. The corrosion caused by the low pH of trichlor cannot be reversed.. “Once that copper's off of the heat exchanger, it's gone.” “You can't reverse that corrosion process. But scale, you can reverse it, you can clean the scale off.” Though there’s no one “perfect” pool solution out there, cal hypo tends to be the better option because of its ease of use, reliability, and lack of any real damage to equipment.
See more information
Calcium hypochlorite, better known by its nickname of cal hypo, is one type of product commonly used to treat swimming pool water. It comes in various forms, such as granular or in tablets that look like hockey pucks. Because of its solid, concentrated form and ability to kill any number of pathogens while keeping water clean and sparkling, it is considered the most ideal product to choose when it comes to sanitizing swimming pools. Cal hypo’s solid form makes it is easy to transport and to store. It can be purchased in small bags that are easy for any homeowner to handle and use. It is inexpensive, fast-acting, and very strong. If it’s added correctly, it will not damage the pool or equipment. It is also used to shock pools, which means giving the pool a high dose of chlorine to quickly eliminate any build-up of combined chlorine and extra germs that may have manifested from a high bather load or rain storm. Cal hypo does not contain cyanuric acid, which is a chlorine stabilizer, so cal hypo’s ability to kill germs quickly is not affected by overstabilization that can slow it down. Too much cyanuric acid can also lead to algae blooms, because the chlorine can’t kill the algae as fast. On the flip side, cal hypo’s lack of cyanuric acid also means chlorine is burned off quickly in the sun, which cyanuric acid’s job is to protect from happening. However, cyanuric acid may be added separately to the pool to keep this from occurring. There are other methods of treating a pool, such as trichlor-s-triazinetrione, or trichlor for short. Trichlor is another popular product and is very similar to cal hypo in that it comes in tablets, is inexpensive, easy to transport, and has a high amount of chlorine. However, unlike cal hypo, it does have cyanuric acid to protect the chlorine from being worn away by the sun. Each tablet typically has about 50% cyanuric acid. Cyanuric acid doesn’t dissipate over time like chlorine, so after a while, your pool can end up with a high cyanuric acid level, which can only be lowered by partial draining and refilling. Trichlor also has a low pH, which can cause pipes to corrode. “Typically a lot of pool builders will tell you don’t ever put a trichlor tab in your skimmer because you can have damage to your downstream equipment.” “Cal hypo has a high pH, so even though you have a high concentration of chlorine, it doesn't corrode your heater or any of your other equipment if you put it in either a skimmer or feeder.” Sodium hypochlorite, also known as liquid bleach is another option, but it is only sold as a liquid which makes transporting difficult due to the weight. It is also extremely corrosive, so it must be handled with much more care than its solid counterparts. In addition, liquid bleach loses much of its strength in storage and at high temperatures. Cal hypo contributes calcium to the pool which can create scale in the presence of high pH and high carbonate concentrations.Scale can be removed with an acid wash or anti-scale agent. Unlike corrosion caused by trichlor, scale can be removed. The corrosion caused by the low pH of trichlor cannot be reversed.. “Once that copper's off of the heat exchanger, it's gone.” “You can't reverse that corrosion process. But scale, you can reverse it, you can clean the scale off.” Though there’s no one “perfect” pool solution out there, cal hypo tends to be the better option because of its ease of use, reliability, and lack of any real damage to equipment.
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