Main types and characteristics of disinfectants
Common environmental disinfectants are varied and can be divided into the following categories according to their chemical composition:
(1) Phenols: commonly used are lysol, bacteriotoxin enemy (compound phenol), etc., have a good killing effect on bacteria and viruses, still effective at low temperature, but have a certain corrosive;
(2) volatile alkylation agent: commonly used formalin (40% formaldehyde), pestilence (glutaraldehyde-decyl ammonium chloride solution), ethylene oxide, strong bactericidal force, bacteria, spore, virus, mold and other have the ability to kill, have a certain toxicity and irritation;
(3) alkali: sodium hydroxide, quicklime, plant ash water, virus, bacteria have a strong killing effect;
(4) acids: lactic acid, acetic acid, low toxicity, weak bactericidal force, often used as steam air disinfection;
(5) Oxidants: mainly peracetic acid, broad-spectrum sterilization, fast and strong action, bacteria, viruses, mold and spores are effective, but the nature is unstable, easy to decompose, action time is short, easy to be affected by organic matter in the environment, corrosive to metals, can be used for skin, mucous membrane wound disinfection;
(6) Surfactant: including negeramine, chlorhexidine, ditoxide and other quaternary ammonium disinfectants, with a broad spectrum of bacteriostasis, bactericidal effect, fast action, low toxicity and stimulation, weak effect on viruses and spores, and ditoxide also has a killing effect on viruses and fungi.
Neogeramine is commonly used for disinfection of skin and instruments;
(7) compound disinfectant: weicon (potassium hydrogen sulfate, double chain quaternary ammonium salt and organic acid + relievers -, etc.), farmers (several phenol + surfactant + organic acid), broad-spectrum sterilization, of bacteria, viruses, fungi and spore are effective, excitant small, for a long time, low temperature is still effective, is not affected by organic compounds and metal ions in water, can into the pores of porous surface;
(8) Chlorine-containing disinfectants: Chlorine-containing disinfectants are a kind of highly effective disinfectants with low toxicity, high sterilization efficiency, low price and wide use, which play an important role in controlling the contamination and spread of pathogenic microorganisms.