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Why chlorine is added to water treatment?

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【Summary】In the effluent stage of tap water and sewage treatment plants, chlorination disinfection is widely used to kill bacteria and viruses in the water. In the treatment of industrial circulating cooling water, chlorine is also used to sterilize and remove algae. In the process of cooling water circulation, due to the evaporation of part of the water, the nutrients in the water are concentrated, and bacteria and other microorganisms will multiply in large quantities and easily form slime dirt. Too much slime dirt will lead to pipe blockage and corrosion.

Why chlorine is added to water treatment?

【Summary】In the effluent stage of tap water and sewage treatment plants, chlorination disinfection is widely used to kill bacteria and viruses in the water.

In the treatment of industrial circulating cooling water, chlorine is also used to sterilize and remove algae. In the process of cooling water circulation, due to the evaporation of part of the water, the nutrients in the water are concentrated, and bacteria and other microorganisms will multiply in large quantities and easily form slime dirt. Too much slime dirt will lead to pipe blockage and corrosion.

  • Categroy:News
  • Author:
  • Origin:
  • Release Time:2020-09-25 15:24
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Information

In the effluent stage of tap water and sewage treatment plants, chlorination disinfection is widely used to kill bacteria and viruses in the water.

In the treatment of industrial circulating cooling water, chlorine is also used to sterilize and remove algae. In the process of cooling water circulation, due to the evaporation of part of the water, the nutrients in the water are concentrated, and bacteria and other microorganisms will multiply in large quantities and easily form slime dirt. Too much slime dirt will lead to pipe blockage and corrosion.

Chlorination usually involves injecting chlorine into water to kill bacteria and other microorganisms, usually in bottled chlorine.

Free chlorine - Chlorine gas produces HClO and ClO- in water, and the sum of HClO and ClO- is called "free chlorine".

Among them, free chlorine has a strong killing effect on bacteria and other microorganisms, and is an effective anti-toxin component in free chlorine, so HClO is also called "effective free chlorine".

Compound chlorine -- before free chlorine has bactericidal effect, due to the water dissolved in ammonium ions, organic various impurities, these impurities will first react with free chlorine, the consumption of a part of free chlorine.

For example, free chlorine rapidly reacts with ammonium ions in solution to form monochloramine and dichloramine.

Over a longer period of time, free chlorine also reacts with organic compounds, such as proteins and amino acids, to form various organochlorine compounds.

Chloramines and organochlorines together are called combined chlorines.

Total chlorine -- combined chlorine plus free chlorine is the total amount of chlorine in the solution, called total chlorine.

Only free chlorine is an effective disinfectant in these substances, and combined chlorine has little ability to kill viruses.

Only after meeting the above consumption of chlorine needs, there will be excess free chlorine to kill bacteria.

Chlorination amount -- The amount of chlorine added during chlorination disinfection is called chlorination amount. Chlorination amount should include the required amount of chlorine and the remaining amount of chlorine.

The amount of chlorine required refers to the amount of chlorine needed to kill bacteria and oxidize organic and reducing substances.

Residual chlorine - refers to the amount of chlorine remaining in water to inhibit the re-reproduction of residual bacteria, known as residual chlorine or residual chlorine.

Some people call free chlorine residual chlorine, which is not accurate, killing bacteria after the remaining free chlorine is residual chlorine.

In order to maintain the bactericidal effect, the residual chlorine should always be kept at 0.5 ~ 1mg/L in the discharged water and at the end of the water supply network at 0.05 ~ 0.1mg/L.

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In the realm of environmental sustainability, the treatment of wastewater stands as a critical frontier. As industries expand and populations grow, the need for effective, efficient, and environmentally friendly wastewater treatment solutions becomes increasingly urgent. Among the arsenal of substances utilized in this endeavor, calcium hypochlorite emerges as a vital component, offering a multifaceted approach to combating pollution and safeguarding water resources. At its core, calcium hypochlorite is a powerful oxidizing agent, renowned for its ability to eradicate a wide spectrum of contaminants from water sources. When introduced into wastewater treatment systems, it reacts vigorously with organic and inorganic pollutants, breaking them down into harmless byproducts. This oxidative process effectively neutralizes harmful pathogens, eliminates odors, and reduces organic matter to manageable levels, thereby enhancing the overall quality of treated effluent. One of the primary advantages of calcium hypochlorite lies in its versatility and adaptability to various treatment scenarios. Whether applied in municipal wastewater treatment plants, industrial facilities, or decentralized systems, its efficacy remains consistently high. Moreover, its stability in both solid and liquid forms ensures ease of transportation, storage, and dosing, facilitating seamless integration into existing treatment infrastructures. Furthermore, calcium hypochlorite offers a sustainable solution to the challenge of waterborne disease prevention. By effectively disinfecting wastewater, it curtails the spread of pathogens and minimizes the risk of waterborne illnesses within communities. This proactive approach not only protects public health but also fosters social and economic development by creating safer environments for habitation and commerce. Additionally, the environmental footprint of calcium hypochlorite is comparatively favorable when evaluated against alternative disinfection methods. Unlike chlorine gas or sodium hypochlorite, its production and application generate minimal hazardous byproducts, reducing the risk of accidental releases or environmental contamination. Furthermore, advancements in manufacturing processes have led to the development of calcium hypochlorite formulations with enhanced biodegradability and reduced toxicity, aligning with the principles of green chemistry. In conclusion, the utilization of calcium hypochlorite in wastewater treatment epitomizes a harmonious convergence of efficacy, efficiency, and environmental stewardship. Its role in safeguarding water resources, preserving public health, and promoting sustainable development cannot be overstated. As we navigate the complexities of modern wastewater management, embracing calcium hypochlorite as a cornerstone of our treatment strategies ensures a cleaner, healthier, and more sustainable future for generations to come.
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In the realm of environmental sustainability, the treatment of wastewater stands as a critical frontier. As industries expand and populations grow, the need for effective, efficient, and environmentally friendly wastewater treatment solutions becomes increasingly urgent. Among the arsenal of substances utilized in this endeavor, calcium hypochlorite emerges as a vital component, offering a multifaceted approach to combating pollution and safeguarding water resources. At its core, calcium hypochlorite is a powerful oxidizing agent, renowned for its ability to eradicate a wide spectrum of contaminants from water sources. When introduced into wastewater treatment systems, it reacts vigorously with organic and inorganic pollutants, breaking them down into harmless byproducts. This oxidative process effectively neutralizes harmful pathogens, eliminates odors, and reduces organic matter to manageable levels, thereby enhancing the overall quality of treated effluent. One of the primary advantages of calcium hypochlorite lies in its versatility and adaptability to various treatment scenarios. Whether applied in municipal wastewater treatment plants, industrial facilities, or decentralized systems, its efficacy remains consistently high. Moreover, its stability in both solid and liquid forms ensures ease of transportation, storage, and dosing, facilitating seamless integration into existing treatment infrastructures. Furthermore, calcium hypochlorite offers a sustainable solution to the challenge of waterborne disease prevention. By effectively disinfecting wastewater, it curtails the spread of pathogens and minimizes the risk of waterborne illnesses within communities. This proactive approach not only protects public health but also fosters social and economic development by creating safer environments for habitation and commerce. Additionally, the environmental footprint of calcium hypochlorite is comparatively favorable when evaluated against alternative disinfection methods. Unlike chlorine gas or sodium hypochlorite, its production and application generate minimal hazardous byproducts, reducing the risk of accidental releases or environmental contamination. Furthermore, advancements in manufacturing processes have led to the development of calcium hypochlorite formulations with enhanced biodegradability and reduced toxicity, aligning with the principles of green chemistry. In conclusion, the utilization of calcium hypochlorite in wastewater treatment epitomizes a harmonious convergence of efficacy, efficiency, and environmental stewardship. Its role in safeguarding water resources, preserving public health, and promoting sustainable development cannot be overstated. As we navigate the complexities of modern wastewater management, embracing calcium hypochlorite as a cornerstone of our treatment strategies ensures a cleaner, healthier, and more sustainable future for generations to come.
Controlling Residual Chlorine With Calcium Hypochlorite Versus Trichloroisocyanuric Acid
Controlling Residual Chlorine With Calcium Hypochlorite Versus Trichloroisocyanuric Acid
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Reducing cyanuric acid levels from trichlor can be a bigger battle than reducing calcium hardness from cal hypo.   When it comes to pool sanitation, there are a lot of options. But, in this situation, it’s entire possible to have too much of a good thing. Two common options for pool sanitation are calcium hypochlorite (known as cal hypo) or with trichloroisocyanuric acid (known as trichlor). Both products add chlorine to the swimming pool, killing germs and sanitizing the water for swimming. However, both also introduce extra and different chemicals as well, some of which have their drawbacks when it comes to safety and performance. Pool operators who choose them have their reasons; cost is often a large factor. However, though some chemicals may seem more cost-effective up front, maintaining the sanitizer will also add up in hidden costs. Calcium hypochlorite increases pH, alkalinity and calcium hardness levels. Calcium hardness is important in water in that it protects surfaces, including plaster and metal, from corroding. Trichlor, on the other hand, reduces pH and alkalinity, but increases cyanuric acid (CYA). CYA helps protect chlorine from being decomposed in UV light. It is not recommended, however, for use indoors. Both chemicals, however, have their capacity limits. Too much calcium from cal hypo can turn the water cloudy and cause scaling to occur. And too much CYA from trichlor can render the chlorine less effective in the water, making its sanitizing process much slower. “Because CYA slows the disinfection rate of chlorine, there is a greater risk of illness from waterborne pathogens such as E. coli, giardia and cryptosporidium,"“With just 20 ppm CYA, the risk of illness from crypto is over 10 times higher and the risk of giardia infection is 29 times higher compared to just 2 pm free chlorine alone without stabilization.” When both chemical byproducts reach those limits, the only way to reduce them is by removing water – usually by backwashing the filter or physically removing water from the pool. Evaporation, however, is not an effective way to remove either calcium hardness or CYA, because they do not evaporate. This is where the unexpected costs begin – and is particularly difficult in drought-ridden areas, where emptying and refilling a pool is not an option. Differences between cal hypo and trichlor The real difference between the two chlorinators comes down to water levels and additional chemicals needed to maintain their byproducts in the correct levels. Sanitizing with trichlor requires almost six times the amount of water to retain the CYA within range than it does to keep calcium hardness in check with cal hypo. Similarly, to maintain pH levels, other chemicals are needed. One option for neutralizing increased pH caused by cal hypo is with muriatic acid, and sodium carbonate to neutralize decreased pH caused by trichlor. However, it requires far less muriatic acid—almost 10 times less—to neutralize a pound of cal hypo compared to sodium carbonate for a pound of trichlor. Though at a glance, sodium carbonate and trichlor are both far less expensive than cal hypo and muriatic acid, the amount of sodium carbonate and trichlor required to maintain the pool pH greatly exceeds that of cal hypo and muriatic acid.
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See more information
Hypochlorites are widely used for disinfection, sanitization, and bleaching purposes in various industries. Among them, calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite are the most commonly used. Understanding the differences between these two compounds is crucial for selecting the appropriate chemical for specific applications. This article explores their properties, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Chemical Composition and Physical Form Calcium Hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)₂): Chemical Composition: Calcium hypochlorite consists of calcium, chlorine, and oxygen. Physical Form: It is commonly available in granular or tablet form, with a white or grayish-white appearance. Concentration: Typically, calcium hypochlorite contains 65-70% available chlorine. Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl): Chemical Composition: Sodium hypochlorite consists of sodium, chlorine, and oxygen. Physical Form: It is usually found in liquid form, appearing as a clear, slightly yellow solution. Concentration: Commercial sodium hypochlorite solutions typically contain 10-15% available chlorine. Solubility and Stability Calcium Hypochlorite: Solubility: Calcium hypochlorite is less soluble in water compared to sodium hypochlorite. It requires thorough mixing to dissolve completely. Stability: It is relatively stable when stored in a dry and cool environment but can degrade over time when exposed to heat, moisture, or air. Sodium Hypochlorite: Solubility: Sodium hypochlorite is highly soluble in water, making it easy to use in various aqueous solutions. Stability: It is less stable than calcium hypochlorite and can degrade more rapidly, especially when exposed to light, heat, or contaminants. Sodium hypochlorite solutions should be stored in a cool, dark place to maintain their effectiveness. Applications Calcium Hypochlorite: Water Treatment: Commonly used for disinfecting drinking water and swimming pools due to its high chlorine content and ease of handling in solid form. Sanitization: Used in food processing plants, dairies, and other industries for sanitizing equipment and surfaces. Bleaching: Employed in the textile and paper industries for bleaching fabrics and paper products. Sodium Hypochlorite: Water Treatment: Widely used for disinfecting municipal drinking water and wastewater due to its easy solubility and application in liquid form. Household Cleaning: Found in household bleach and various cleaning products for sanitizing surfaces, removing stains, and disinfecting. Industrial Cleaning: Used in industries for cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, equipment, and containers. Advantages and Disadvantages Calcium Hypochlorite: Advantages: Higher available chlorine content provides strong disinfection power. Solid form offers longer shelf life and easier storage. Less corrosive compared to liquid hypochlorites. Disadvantages: Requires careful handling and storage to prevent degradation. Less soluble, requiring thorough mixing in water. Potentially hazardous if not handled properly. Sodium Hypochlorite: Advantages: Highly soluble in water, making it easy to use in various solutions. Convenient for large-scale disinfection and cleaning due to its liquid form. Commonly available and easy to use in household and industrial applications. Disadvantages: Lower chlorine content compared to calcium hypochlorite. Less stable, with a shorter shelf life and potential for rapid degradation. More corrosive, requiring careful handling and storage. Environmental Impact Both calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite can have significant environmental impacts if not used and disposed of properly. They can contribute to chlorine residuals in water bodies, which can be harmful to aquatic life. Proper handling, storage, and disposal procedures are essential to minimize their environmental footprint. Conclusion Calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite are both effective disinfectants with their own sets of advantages and disadvantages. Calcium hypochlorite's higher chlorine content and solid form make it suitable for certain applications, while sodium hypochlorite's solubility and ease of use in liquid form make it ideal for others. Understanding the differences between these two chemicals helps in selecting the appropriate hypochlorite for specific needs, ensuring effective disinfection while considering handling, stability, and environmental impact.
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