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Knowledge of pneumonia caused by novel coronavirus

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[Abstract]:
Knowledge of pneumonia caused by novel coronavirus

1

Who is susceptible to novel coronavirus?

The crowd is generally susceptible.

Novel coronavirus pneumonia can occur in both immunocompromised and immunonormally infected people, and is related to the amount of virus exposure.

For people with poor immune function, such as the elderly, pregnant and pregnant women, or those with abnormal liver and kidney functions, who have chronic diseases, the disease is worse after infection.

2

What are the ways of transmission of a novel coronavirus?

The main modes of transmission are transmission by droplets, contact transmission (including self-inoculations caused by hand contamination) and close transmission of respiratory aerosols of different sizes.

At present, close - range droplet transmission should be the main way.

3

Can a novel coronavirus be passed from person to person?

Will be.

Judging from the incidence sequence of some clustered cases, the characteristics of human-to-human transmission are very obvious, and there is a certain range of community transmission.

4

What is droplet transmission?

Droplets: water-bearing particles with a diameter of > 5um are generally considered. Droplets can enter susceptible mucosal surfaces through a certain distance (generally 1 meter).

Droplet production:

(1) cough, sneeze or talk

(2) perform invasive operations of respiratory tract, such as sputum aspiration or endotracheal intubation, roll over, pat on the back, etc., and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

5

What is contact transmission?

Direct contact: transmission of pathogens by direct contact with mucous membranes or skin

(1) blood or bloody fluids enter the body through mucous membranes or damaged skin

(2) direct contact with secretions containing certain pathogens causes transmission

6

What is a close contact?

A person who has lived or worked with a confirmed or highly suspected case of the virus within 14 days.

Including colleagues in the office, colleagues in the same classroom, dormitory, classmates, passengers on the same plane, etc.

And other forms of direct contact include escorts of infected patients, taxis and elevators.

7

Precautions for close contacts

All people (including health care workers) who may have had contact with a suspected patient should be given a 14-day health watch.

The observation period begins on the last day of contact with the patient.

As soon as any symptoms appear, especially fever, respiratory symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath or diarrhea, seek medical advice immediately!

8

Close contact monitoring recommendations

(1) if the contact shows symptoms, inform the hospital in advance and will go to the hospital.

(2) patients should wear surgical masks on the way to the hospital.

(3) avoid public transport, call an ambulance or use a private vehicle to transport the patient. If possible, open the window on the road.

(4) close contacts who are ill should maintain respiratory hygiene and clean hands at all times.

When standing or sitting on the road or in the hospital, keep as far away from others as possible (at least 1 meter).

(5) any surfaces contaminated by respiratory secretions or body fluids should be cleaned and disinfected with a disinfectant containing diluted bleach.

9

What are the clinical manifestations of novel coronavirus pneumonia patients?

Novel coronavirus infection of pneumonia with fever as the main manifestation, can be combined with mild dry cough, fatigue, dyspnea, diarrhea and other symptoms, runny nose, cough and sputum symptoms are rare.

Some patients have mild symptoms, but no fever, only symptoms of headache, palpitation, chest tightness, conjunctivitis, mild limb or back muscle pain.

Some patients developed dyspnea after a week, and the severe cases progressed rapidly.

Most of the patients had a good prognosis, and a few were in critical condition or even died.

10

How to identify and observe a case of pneumonia caused by novel coronavirus in clinical practice

At the same time meet the following two conditions

(1) epidemiological history: in the two weeks before the onset of the disease, the travel or residence history in wuhan city, or the 14 days before the onset of the disease, the exposure to the patients with fever from wuhan accompanied by respiratory symptoms, the prevalence of residential infectious diseases, whether the patients in the cluster cases, whether the infection caused by others, etc.

Direct or indirect contact with relevant markets, especially farmers' markets in wuhan.

(2) clinical manifestations: fever;

Viral pneumonia imaging features;

The total number of white blood cells in the early stage of the disease is normal or decreased, or the lymphocyte count is reduced.

On the basis of case observation, collecting sputum, pharyngeal swab and other respiratory tract specimens for viral nucleic acid detection can be used to make etiological diagnosis.

11

Prevention and control measures of pneumonia by novel coronavirus

• standard precautions;

• precautions against airborne transmission;

• contact and droplet precautions: wash hands frequently and wear a mask when going out;

• room ventilation;

• cleaning and disinfection: novel coronavirus is sensitive to heat. Soaking in hot water at 56℃ for 30 minutes, 75% alcohol, chlorine-containing disinfectant, chloroform and other fatty solvents can effectively inactivate the virus.