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Production process of calcium hypochlorite

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  • Release Time:2019-11-22 14:57
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【Summary】Production process of calcium hypochlorite

Production process of calcium hypochlorite

【Summary】Production process of calcium hypochlorite

  • Categroy:News
  • Author:
  • Origin:
  • Release Time:2019-11-22 14:57
  • Views:
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At present, there are three main types of calcium hypochlorite production methods, namely, calcium process, sodium process and hypochlorous acid process: the calcium process route is shown in Figure 1. First, a lime slurry is added to the chlorination tank, and then chlorine gas is introduced therein to carry out a chlorination reaction. The crystallized state of the product obtained at different times of the reaction is different, and the crystal state of the product is observed after a certain time interval to determine the progress of the reaction. When the reaction is completed, the chlorinated slurry is subjected to solid-liquid separation, and the bottom solid phase product is placed in a dry box for drying, and after drying, the product is obtained by cooling. The calcium chloride product produced by the calcium method generally has an effective chlorine content of about 60%, and the products are mostly irregularly shaped particles or powders, resulting in poor product usability. At the same time, the product contains more impurities, containing about 10% calcium chloride and 20% unreacted calcium hydroxide, resulting in strong hygroscopicity and poor stability. In the production of this method, about 10 tons of waste liquid is discharged per ton of product, containing about 10% of available chlorine, and the waste liquid is difficult to handle.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1 Calcium production of calcium hypochlorite process route

 

The sodium production process is shown in Figure 2. Firstly, calcium hydroxide is added to the slurry tank for slurrying, and then chlorine gas and sodium hydroxide are introduced for chlorination reaction, thereby making up for the defect of more impurities in the calcium production process, and the calcium hygrometer having strong hygroscopicity. And the conversion of the raw material calcium hydroxide into sodium chloride, while improving the stability of the product, increasing the utilization rate of the raw material, the content of calcium hydroxide in the product is less than 3%. Due to the low content of impurities, the effective chlorine content of the product can reach more than 70%. The product is regular granular and easy to use. After the chlorination is completed, the slurry obtained is separated to obtain a bottom solid phase, which is dried in a dry box, and after cooling, is cooled and recovered. At the same time, the supernatant liquid, that is, the mother liquor, can also be recycled and reused. The sodium chloride can be used for electrolytic production of chlorine and alkali in the chlor-alkali plant after purification treatment, thereby realizing cyclic production.

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2: Sodium hypochlorite production route

 

The hypochlorous acid process route is shown in Figure 3. First, chlorine gas is introduced into the sodium carbonate aqueous solution to prepare hypochlorous acid, and then the lime slurry is chlorinated with hypochlorous acid to obtain calcium hypochlorite, which is then neutralized with hydrated lime to obtain a finished product. Since hypochlorous acid is an unstable inorganic weak acid, it is the main component of chlorine bleaching agent. It is oxidizing and unstable. It is easily decomposed at normal temperature. Therefore, it is usually used immediately after preparation, or it can be prepared first. The acid chloric acid is dichlorinated, and sodium carbonate is used as a raw material. The bleaching powder product produced by this process has high purity, its effective chlorine can reach more than 75%, the product is more stable, and the use is safer and more convenient. The three wastes in production are also well handled. However, hypochlorous acid is highly corrosive, requires high selection of materials for related equipment, and has good corrosion resistance. The use of the support material is generally required, which is expensive, resulting in high equipment investment, thereby increasing production costs.

 

Through the above comparative analysis, it can be known that the calcium method has low effective chlorine content, irregular products, many residues, and difficult treatment of waste liquid, which is not suitable for environmental protection requirements; while the hypochlorous acid process has high effective chlorine content, stable product, convenient use, etc. Advantages, but high cost, high equipment investment, and poor market competitiveness. Therefore, the sodium production process is currently the most suitable and can guarantee the quality requirements of calcium hypochlorite, and should be widely applied in actual production.

 

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Environmental Sustainability: The Significance of Calcium Hypochlorite in Wastewater Treatment
Environmental Sustainability: The Significance of Calcium Hypochlorite in Wastewater Treatment
In the realm of environmental sustainability, the treatment of wastewater stands as a critical frontier. As industries expand and populations grow, the need for effective, efficient, and environmentally friendly wastewater treatment solutions becomes increasingly urgent. Among the arsenal of substances utilized in this endeavor, calcium hypochlorite emerges as a vital component, offering a multifaceted approach to combating pollution and safeguarding water resources. At its core, calcium hypochlorite is a powerful oxidizing agent, renowned for its ability to eradicate a wide spectrum of contaminants from water sources. When introduced into wastewater treatment systems, it reacts vigorously with organic and inorganic pollutants, breaking them down into harmless byproducts. This oxidative process effectively neutralizes harmful pathogens, eliminates odors, and reduces organic matter to manageable levels, thereby enhancing the overall quality of treated effluent. One of the primary advantages of calcium hypochlorite lies in its versatility and adaptability to various treatment scenarios. Whether applied in municipal wastewater treatment plants, industrial facilities, or decentralized systems, its efficacy remains consistently high. Moreover, its stability in both solid and liquid forms ensures ease of transportation, storage, and dosing, facilitating seamless integration into existing treatment infrastructures. Furthermore, calcium hypochlorite offers a sustainable solution to the challenge of waterborne disease prevention. By effectively disinfecting wastewater, it curtails the spread of pathogens and minimizes the risk of waterborne illnesses within communities. This proactive approach not only protects public health but also fosters social and economic development by creating safer environments for habitation and commerce. Additionally, the environmental footprint of calcium hypochlorite is comparatively favorable when evaluated against alternative disinfection methods. Unlike chlorine gas or sodium hypochlorite, its production and application generate minimal hazardous byproducts, reducing the risk of accidental releases or environmental contamination. Furthermore, advancements in manufacturing processes have led to the development of calcium hypochlorite formulations with enhanced biodegradability and reduced toxicity, aligning with the principles of green chemistry. In conclusion, the utilization of calcium hypochlorite in wastewater treatment epitomizes a harmonious convergence of efficacy, efficiency, and environmental stewardship. Its role in safeguarding water resources, preserving public health, and promoting sustainable development cannot be overstated. As we navigate the complexities of modern wastewater management, embracing calcium hypochlorite as a cornerstone of our treatment strategies ensures a cleaner, healthier, and more sustainable future for generations to come.
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In the realm of environmental sustainability, the treatment of wastewater stands as a critical frontier. As industries expand and populations grow, the need for effective, efficient, and environmentally friendly wastewater treatment solutions becomes increasingly urgent. Among the arsenal of substances utilized in this endeavor, calcium hypochlorite emerges as a vital component, offering a multifaceted approach to combating pollution and safeguarding water resources. At its core, calcium hypochlorite is a powerful oxidizing agent, renowned for its ability to eradicate a wide spectrum of contaminants from water sources. When introduced into wastewater treatment systems, it reacts vigorously with organic and inorganic pollutants, breaking them down into harmless byproducts. This oxidative process effectively neutralizes harmful pathogens, eliminates odors, and reduces organic matter to manageable levels, thereby enhancing the overall quality of treated effluent. One of the primary advantages of calcium hypochlorite lies in its versatility and adaptability to various treatment scenarios. Whether applied in municipal wastewater treatment plants, industrial facilities, or decentralized systems, its efficacy remains consistently high. Moreover, its stability in both solid and liquid forms ensures ease of transportation, storage, and dosing, facilitating seamless integration into existing treatment infrastructures. Furthermore, calcium hypochlorite offers a sustainable solution to the challenge of waterborne disease prevention. By effectively disinfecting wastewater, it curtails the spread of pathogens and minimizes the risk of waterborne illnesses within communities. This proactive approach not only protects public health but also fosters social and economic development by creating safer environments for habitation and commerce. Additionally, the environmental footprint of calcium hypochlorite is comparatively favorable when evaluated against alternative disinfection methods. Unlike chlorine gas or sodium hypochlorite, its production and application generate minimal hazardous byproducts, reducing the risk of accidental releases or environmental contamination. Furthermore, advancements in manufacturing processes have led to the development of calcium hypochlorite formulations with enhanced biodegradability and reduced toxicity, aligning with the principles of green chemistry. In conclusion, the utilization of calcium hypochlorite in wastewater treatment epitomizes a harmonious convergence of efficacy, efficiency, and environmental stewardship. Its role in safeguarding water resources, preserving public health, and promoting sustainable development cannot be overstated. As we navigate the complexities of modern wastewater management, embracing calcium hypochlorite as a cornerstone of our treatment strategies ensures a cleaner, healthier, and more sustainable future for generations to come.
Controlling Residual Chlorine With Calcium Hypochlorite Versus Trichloroisocyanuric Acid
Controlling Residual Chlorine With Calcium Hypochlorite Versus Trichloroisocyanuric Acid
Reducing cyanuric acid levels from trichlor can be a bigger battle than reducing calcium hardness from cal hypo.   When it comes to pool sanitation, there are a lot of options. But, in this situation, it’s entire possible to have too much of a good thing. Two common options for pool sanitation are calcium hypochlorite (known as cal hypo) or with trichloroisocyanuric acid (known as trichlor). Both products add chlorine to the swimming pool, killing germs and sanitizing the water for swimming. However, both also introduce extra and different chemicals as well, some of which have their drawbacks when it comes to safety and performance. Pool operators who choose them have their reasons; cost is often a large factor. However, though some chemicals may seem more cost-effective up front, maintaining the sanitizer will also add up in hidden costs. Calcium hypochlorite increases pH, alkalinity and calcium hardness levels. Calcium hardness is important in water in that it protects surfaces, including plaster and metal, from corroding. Trichlor, on the other hand, reduces pH and alkalinity, but increases cyanuric acid (CYA). CYA helps protect chlorine from being decomposed in UV light. It is not recommended, however, for use indoors. Both chemicals, however, have their capacity limits. Too much calcium from cal hypo can turn the water cloudy and cause scaling to occur. And too much CYA from trichlor can render the chlorine less effective in the water, making its sanitizing process much slower. “Because CYA slows the disinfection rate of chlorine, there is a greater risk of illness from waterborne pathogens such as E. coli, giardia and cryptosporidium,"“With just 20 ppm CYA, the risk of illness from crypto is over 10 times higher and the risk of giardia infection is 29 times higher compared to just 2 pm free chlorine alone without stabilization.” When both chemical byproducts reach those limits, the only way to reduce them is by removing water – usually by backwashing the filter or physically removing water from the pool. Evaporation, however, is not an effective way to remove either calcium hardness or CYA, because they do not evaporate. This is where the unexpected costs begin – and is particularly difficult in drought-ridden areas, where emptying and refilling a pool is not an option. Differences between cal hypo and trichlor The real difference between the two chlorinators comes down to water levels and additional chemicals needed to maintain their byproducts in the correct levels. Sanitizing with trichlor requires almost six times the amount of water to retain the CYA within range than it does to keep calcium hardness in check with cal hypo. Similarly, to maintain pH levels, other chemicals are needed. One option for neutralizing increased pH caused by cal hypo is with muriatic acid, and sodium carbonate to neutralize decreased pH caused by trichlor. However, it requires far less muriatic acid—almost 10 times less—to neutralize a pound of cal hypo compared to sodium carbonate for a pound of trichlor. Though at a glance, sodium carbonate and trichlor are both far less expensive than cal hypo and muriatic acid, the amount of sodium carbonate and trichlor required to maintain the pool pH greatly exceeds that of cal hypo and muriatic acid.
See more information
Reducing cyanuric acid levels from trichlor can be a bigger battle than reducing calcium hardness from cal hypo.   When it comes to pool sanitation, there are a lot of options. But, in this situation, it’s entire possible to have too much of a good thing. Two common options for pool sanitation are calcium hypochlorite (known as cal hypo) or with trichloroisocyanuric acid (known as trichlor). Both products add chlorine to the swimming pool, killing germs and sanitizing the water for swimming. However, both also introduce extra and different chemicals as well, some of which have their drawbacks when it comes to safety and performance. Pool operators who choose them have their reasons; cost is often a large factor. However, though some chemicals may seem more cost-effective up front, maintaining the sanitizer will also add up in hidden costs. Calcium hypochlorite increases pH, alkalinity and calcium hardness levels. Calcium hardness is important in water in that it protects surfaces, including plaster and metal, from corroding. Trichlor, on the other hand, reduces pH and alkalinity, but increases cyanuric acid (CYA). CYA helps protect chlorine from being decomposed in UV light. It is not recommended, however, for use indoors. Both chemicals, however, have their capacity limits. Too much calcium from cal hypo can turn the water cloudy and cause scaling to occur. And too much CYA from trichlor can render the chlorine less effective in the water, making its sanitizing process much slower. “Because CYA slows the disinfection rate of chlorine, there is a greater risk of illness from waterborne pathogens such as E. coli, giardia and cryptosporidium,"“With just 20 ppm CYA, the risk of illness from crypto is over 10 times higher and the risk of giardia infection is 29 times higher compared to just 2 pm free chlorine alone without stabilization.” When both chemical byproducts reach those limits, the only way to reduce them is by removing water – usually by backwashing the filter or physically removing water from the pool. Evaporation, however, is not an effective way to remove either calcium hardness or CYA, because they do not evaporate. This is where the unexpected costs begin – and is particularly difficult in drought-ridden areas, where emptying and refilling a pool is not an option. Differences between cal hypo and trichlor The real difference between the two chlorinators comes down to water levels and additional chemicals needed to maintain their byproducts in the correct levels. Sanitizing with trichlor requires almost six times the amount of water to retain the CYA within range than it does to keep calcium hardness in check with cal hypo. Similarly, to maintain pH levels, other chemicals are needed. One option for neutralizing increased pH caused by cal hypo is with muriatic acid, and sodium carbonate to neutralize decreased pH caused by trichlor. However, it requires far less muriatic acid—almost 10 times less—to neutralize a pound of cal hypo compared to sodium carbonate for a pound of trichlor. Though at a glance, sodium carbonate and trichlor are both far less expensive than cal hypo and muriatic acid, the amount of sodium carbonate and trichlor required to maintain the pool pH greatly exceeds that of cal hypo and muriatic acid.
Differences Between Calcium Hypochlorite and Sodium Hypochlorite
Differences Between Calcium Hypochlorite and Sodium Hypochlorite
Hypochlorites are widely used for disinfection, sanitization, and bleaching purposes in various industries. Among them, calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite are the most commonly used. Understanding the differences between these two compounds is crucial for selecting the appropriate chemical for specific applications. This article explores their properties, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Chemical Composition and Physical Form Calcium Hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)₂): Chemical Composition: Calcium hypochlorite consists of calcium, chlorine, and oxygen. Physical Form: It is commonly available in granular or tablet form, with a white or grayish-white appearance. Concentration: Typically, calcium hypochlorite contains 65-70% available chlorine. Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl): Chemical Composition: Sodium hypochlorite consists of sodium, chlorine, and oxygen. Physical Form: It is usually found in liquid form, appearing as a clear, slightly yellow solution. Concentration: Commercial sodium hypochlorite solutions typically contain 10-15% available chlorine. Solubility and Stability Calcium Hypochlorite: Solubility: Calcium hypochlorite is less soluble in water compared to sodium hypochlorite. It requires thorough mixing to dissolve completely. Stability: It is relatively stable when stored in a dry and cool environment but can degrade over time when exposed to heat, moisture, or air. Sodium Hypochlorite: Solubility: Sodium hypochlorite is highly soluble in water, making it easy to use in various aqueous solutions. Stability: It is less stable than calcium hypochlorite and can degrade more rapidly, especially when exposed to light, heat, or contaminants. Sodium hypochlorite solutions should be stored in a cool, dark place to maintain their effectiveness. Applications Calcium Hypochlorite: Water Treatment: Commonly used for disinfecting drinking water and swimming pools due to its high chlorine content and ease of handling in solid form. Sanitization: Used in food processing plants, dairies, and other industries for sanitizing equipment and surfaces. Bleaching: Employed in the textile and paper industries for bleaching fabrics and paper products. Sodium Hypochlorite: Water Treatment: Widely used for disinfecting municipal drinking water and wastewater due to its easy solubility and application in liquid form. Household Cleaning: Found in household bleach and various cleaning products for sanitizing surfaces, removing stains, and disinfecting. Industrial Cleaning: Used in industries for cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, equipment, and containers. Advantages and Disadvantages Calcium Hypochlorite: Advantages: Higher available chlorine content provides strong disinfection power. Solid form offers longer shelf life and easier storage. Less corrosive compared to liquid hypochlorites. Disadvantages: Requires careful handling and storage to prevent degradation. Less soluble, requiring thorough mixing in water. Potentially hazardous if not handled properly. Sodium Hypochlorite: Advantages: Highly soluble in water, making it easy to use in various solutions. Convenient for large-scale disinfection and cleaning due to its liquid form. Commonly available and easy to use in household and industrial applications. Disadvantages: Lower chlorine content compared to calcium hypochlorite. Less stable, with a shorter shelf life and potential for rapid degradation. More corrosive, requiring careful handling and storage. Environmental Impact Both calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite can have significant environmental impacts if not used and disposed of properly. They can contribute to chlorine residuals in water bodies, which can be harmful to aquatic life. Proper handling, storage, and disposal procedures are essential to minimize their environmental footprint. Conclusion Calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite are both effective disinfectants with their own sets of advantages and disadvantages. Calcium hypochlorite's higher chlorine content and solid form make it suitable for certain applications, while sodium hypochlorite's solubility and ease of use in liquid form make it ideal for others. Understanding the differences between these two chemicals helps in selecting the appropriate hypochlorite for specific needs, ensuring effective disinfection while considering handling, stability, and environmental impact.
See more information
Hypochlorites are widely used for disinfection, sanitization, and bleaching purposes in various industries. Among them, calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite are the most commonly used. Understanding the differences between these two compounds is crucial for selecting the appropriate chemical for specific applications. This article explores their properties, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Chemical Composition and Physical Form Calcium Hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)₂): Chemical Composition: Calcium hypochlorite consists of calcium, chlorine, and oxygen. Physical Form: It is commonly available in granular or tablet form, with a white or grayish-white appearance. Concentration: Typically, calcium hypochlorite contains 65-70% available chlorine. Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl): Chemical Composition: Sodium hypochlorite consists of sodium, chlorine, and oxygen. Physical Form: It is usually found in liquid form, appearing as a clear, slightly yellow solution. Concentration: Commercial sodium hypochlorite solutions typically contain 10-15% available chlorine. Solubility and Stability Calcium Hypochlorite: Solubility: Calcium hypochlorite is less soluble in water compared to sodium hypochlorite. It requires thorough mixing to dissolve completely. Stability: It is relatively stable when stored in a dry and cool environment but can degrade over time when exposed to heat, moisture, or air. Sodium Hypochlorite: Solubility: Sodium hypochlorite is highly soluble in water, making it easy to use in various aqueous solutions. Stability: It is less stable than calcium hypochlorite and can degrade more rapidly, especially when exposed to light, heat, or contaminants. Sodium hypochlorite solutions should be stored in a cool, dark place to maintain their effectiveness. Applications Calcium Hypochlorite: Water Treatment: Commonly used for disinfecting drinking water and swimming pools due to its high chlorine content and ease of handling in solid form. Sanitization: Used in food processing plants, dairies, and other industries for sanitizing equipment and surfaces. Bleaching: Employed in the textile and paper industries for bleaching fabrics and paper products. Sodium Hypochlorite: Water Treatment: Widely used for disinfecting municipal drinking water and wastewater due to its easy solubility and application in liquid form. Household Cleaning: Found in household bleach and various cleaning products for sanitizing surfaces, removing stains, and disinfecting. Industrial Cleaning: Used in industries for cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, equipment, and containers. Advantages and Disadvantages Calcium Hypochlorite: Advantages: Higher available chlorine content provides strong disinfection power. Solid form offers longer shelf life and easier storage. Less corrosive compared to liquid hypochlorites. Disadvantages: Requires careful handling and storage to prevent degradation. Less soluble, requiring thorough mixing in water. Potentially hazardous if not handled properly. Sodium Hypochlorite: Advantages: Highly soluble in water, making it easy to use in various solutions. Convenient for large-scale disinfection and cleaning due to its liquid form. Commonly available and easy to use in household and industrial applications. Disadvantages: Lower chlorine content compared to calcium hypochlorite. Less stable, with a shorter shelf life and potential for rapid degradation. More corrosive, requiring careful handling and storage. Environmental Impact Both calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite can have significant environmental impacts if not used and disposed of properly. They can contribute to chlorine residuals in water bodies, which can be harmful to aquatic life. Proper handling, storage, and disposal procedures are essential to minimize their environmental footprint. Conclusion Calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite are both effective disinfectants with their own sets of advantages and disadvantages. Calcium hypochlorite's higher chlorine content and solid form make it suitable for certain applications, while sodium hypochlorite's solubility and ease of use in liquid form make it ideal for others. Understanding the differences between these two chemicals helps in selecting the appropriate hypochlorite for specific needs, ensuring effective disinfection while considering handling, stability, and environmental impact.
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